Climatic conditions of Mt. Milešovka


Rudolf Brázdil, Marie Budíková, Petr Dobrovolný, Jaroslav Fišák, Miroslav Kolář, Pavel Prošek, Zbyněk Sokol, Josef Štekl, Petr Štěpánek, Pavla Štěpánková, Petr Zacharov


Milan Lapin, Ivan Sládek

The publication deals with the analysis of climatic patterns of the mountain observatory of Mt. Milešovka (Donnersberg), situated at an isolated phonolite cone in the České středohoří Mts. in northwest Bohemia at the height above sea level of 837 m. Continuous observations are available since January, 1905, being interrupted in January, 1917 and September, 1938. Owing to the loss of records part of the daily observations for May to July of the period of 1930-1935 is inaccessible. On 1 September, 1940 a change in the position of the meteorological screen took place. It was shifted from the window on the northern side of the building (5.65 m above the ground) to a standard position in the meadow north-by-northwest from the observatory.


Chapter 1 - The history of meteorological observations at Mt. Milešovka
Information is given about the origin of the name of Mt. Milešovka (Donnersberg) and its history up to the building of the meteorological observatory on the initiative of the Mountain Society at Teplice. There is a detailed description of the development of the observatory, its instrumental equipment, observation programme, including interventions which might affect the homogeneity of observations. There are also biographical data of the most significant personalities who were responsible for the development of the observatory, Prof. R. Spitaler, Prof. L. W. Pollak and Dr. F. Rein.

Chapter 2 - Climatic patterns of Mt. Milešovka
This part presents the procession of the individual meteorological elements and phenomena for which always an overview of hitherto papers devoted to Mt. Milešovka is mentioned, problems with the measurement or observation, basic statistical characteristics of the mean, variability and distribution, their daily and annual variation. The analysis is carried out for the period of 1905-1994 and/or 1961-1990 (other periods used are mentioned in the following overview).


Chapter 3 - Weather situations at selected meteorological extremes at Mt. Milešovka
This chapter deals with the synoptic analysis of several selected extremely high and low air temperatures, extremely high daily precipitation totals, extreme wind speeds, winter thunderstorms and thick rime for the period of 1989-1996. Each case is characterised by the field of geopotential heights and air temperature (and/or the field of relative air humidity and the field of wind vectors) for the level of 925 hPa. The selected cases are compared with a set of typical synoptic types favourable for the occurrence of extreme meteorological situations on the territory of the Czech Republic according to the classification of J. Štekl.

Chapter 4 - Fluctuation of selected characteristics of meteorological elements and phenomena at Mt. Milešovka
Series of selected characteristics of meteorological elements and phenomena at Mt. Milešovka are tested according to the possibilities for the relative homogeneity with respect to the observation series of the German stations Mt. Fichtelberg (1214 m) and/or Potsdam (81 m), above all with respect to the transfer of the meteorological screen since the 1 September, 1940. For the period of 1961-1990 the correlation linkage between the studied characteristics is looked for. For the individual series of monthly, seasonal and annual values in the period of 1905-1997 their linear trends were calculated and their statistical significance was determined. The above series were further smoothed by the Gauss filter (10 years) and analysed by the method of spectral analysis according to Blackman and Tukey and MESA. The fluctuation of the studied characteristics at Mt. Milešovka is put in connection with the fluctuation of corresponding annual series at two mountain stations Mt. Fichtelberg and Mt. Sněžka. Observed air temperature and precipitation fluctuations are discussed with regards to circulation indices (North Atlantic Oscillation Index - NAOI, Central European Zonal Index - CEZI), solar, volcanic and CO2 forcing.

Chapter 5 - Conclusion
A brief characteristic is given of the contents of the publication in the context of monographs about further mountain meteorological stations in central Europe.

Chapter 6 - Publications related to the observatory at Mt. Milešovka
This chapter gives a list of publications devoted to Mt. Milešovka with the division into general papers (23), studies devoted to the history of the meteorological observatory (22), the results of meteorological and magnetic observations (77), meteorological and climatological studies concerning for the most part Mt. Milešovka (86) and/or those in which Mt. Milešovka is at least mentioned or named as one of several processed stations (49), papers of different orientation utilising data from Mt. Milešovka (40) and graduation theses and other papers (46). Altogether it is 343 papers.

Chapter 7 - Appendices
For selected characteristics of meteorological elements and phenomena series of monthly and annual values in the period of 1905-1994 and/or 1961-1990 are published on CD ROM.

Descriptions to Figures, Tables and Appendices are always given at the respective place also in the English language.